Being closers to nature on the example of the Naturist movement

At the dawn of the twentieth century in Europe began to gain popularity a movement called Freikörperkultur, which translated into English ...

At the dawn of the twentieth century in Europe began to gain popularity a movement called Freikörperkultur, which translated into English  means "free body culture". This particular branch of naturism, which is based on the principles of health and to be closer to nature.

1903 were published  the first works of the theorists of naturism. The first was Richard Ungevitter who published his pamphlet entitled "Nudity and Culture" (it was sold at about 100,000 copies), in which he described the favor of reunification with nature in its primary condition, saying that thus "the Germans will be able to regain their lost spirit ". After it was published came  the work of the known German doctor, adhering to nationalist views, Arthur Theodore Fuchs, at the same time he conducted  lectures and seminars, talking about the healing powers of the sun and the "Nordic Heaven", which "alone strengthens a nation of warriors." According to Fuchs's philosophy, life in the ancient woods and the German tradition, which complies with the ancient tribes of Germany, would be useful for the regeneration of the Aryan people. In the wake behind it in 1924 published his book Hans Suren titled "Man and the Sun," which extols the German spirit, the beauty of the human body and unity with nature. As a result, the book sold 240,000 copies.
Closer by 1930 the movement became especially popular in the German media, among both the general population and among the ruling strata. It was believed that about 80% of German households share the ideas of naturism, and some leaders of the ruling party's officially recognized themselves supporters of this movement. It is worth noting that in many countries of Central Europe until the 18th century it was considered normal skinny dipping, and generally like to stay close to nature, but occasionally it is forbidden, but at the dawn of the twentieth century soars again. 
In 1898 the first club of Freikörperkultur was founded  in the  small German city of Essen. In 1900, more baths originated in the Berlin area, as well as in the North and Baltic Seas. Following this motion arises such an attitude towards life, in which naked body was not disgraceful, as well as nudity in this movement was not supposed to be sexy.

The first naturist society that bore the name "Tifal", was founded by Richard Ungevitterom, which was written above. The Society preached an healthy lifestyle, not smoking, alcohol and eating meat, as well as gymnastics. It proclaims the purpose of man's return to the natural way of life, free from the distortions associated with the suppression of natural needs. The first naturist recreation center near Hamburg was founded later by dome members of this society.
Nevertheless, I would like to clarify that between nudists and naturists there is a big difference. Nudists just love to come naked, in the comfort of freedom from clothing and naturism instead is  a whole philosophy of living in harmony with nature. The cult of nudity as a practice of spiritual perfection existed since ancient times, as well as it took place among the Indian ascetics the Jains, which the ancient Greeks called gymnosophists or  "naked sages.
As for the German naturism, the foundation of their movement steel sunlight and nudity as a way to health and a cleaner, more natural life. It was promoted by doctors and artists, including Karl Diefenbach (Karl Diefenbach) and Hёppener Hugo (Hugo Höppener, alias Fidus). In 1894 he painted a picture of Fidus «Lichtgebet» ( «Prayer of Light"), which soon became an "icon" of naturism. But for the movement is considered the ideologue Pudor Henry, author of "Naked people. Rejoicing of the Future "and" The cult of nudity. " "Free Bodybuilding", according to him, is developing the harmony of body and soul that is needed to form a "perfect man of the Nordic race." He coined the term in 1903 Nacktkultur, connecting nudity, vegetarianism and social reform. In his three-volume main work  «Die Nacktkultur» Pudor promotes the cult of cold water and the sun, walking and exercise naked, and along with vegetarian and racial hygiene, including the popular anti-Semitism in contemporary Germany.

This philosophy is, in many ways consonant to  old German theories of physical education,  and physical education seemed very attractive and had a practical application. Freikoerperkultur Supporters or "light culture" Adolf Koch, Hans Suren and Richard Ungevitter strongly popularized the idea of ​​nudity, emphasizing such things as physical pleasure from the open sun, air and water, nudity is good for health, and most importantly, its naturalness, closeness to nature. They argued that the exercise without clothes guarantees human health and beauty. "Free body culture" had a lot of supporters, especially in the German youth movement. In 1931, the total number was, according to various estimates, from 200 thousand to 3 million people. German youth organization, the so-called Wandering Birds (Wandervoegel) conducted numerous hiking trips, during which young men and women, jointly and severally, swam and practiced naked, sleeping naked in tents, etc.

In our view, these movements found their further development and philosophical justification through the popular works at that time of Friedrich Nietzsche. In contrast to Christian asceticism and "apollon" ideal of calm restraint. Nudity occupies in the system of values ​​a special place, it is not seen as poverty and openness to the sun and the "fullness of physical force." None wonder if the Greek gods go naked. So do the superman. Nietzschean cult of the body is shared by many prominent artists and thinkers of the late XIX century. Oscar Wilde wrote in 1885: "I find the earth as beautiful as the sky, and the body is  as beautiful as the soul."

But not so long ago the German companions FFK were told to get dressed so as not to confuse the workers. Rules were introduced in connection with the fact that the lake where they bathe, will create a shelter for refugees. Club members of Familiensport- und FKK Bund-Waldteichfreunde Moritzburg swim naked in the lake north of Dresden for over a hundred years - and now they are told to dress up.

We would like to draw your attention to the point that this movement does not represent a crowd of perverts or hippies. The Companions of the movement were conscious and nationally oriented people who have thrown off the shackles of Christian shame and tried to touch its pristine pagan nature through communion with Nature!



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